Cystoscopy, urethroscopy, and vaginoscopy are used to evaluate the urinary bladder, urethra, and vagina, respectively. These procedures are usually performed concurrently. Patients with chronic or recurrent lower urinary tract disease may benefit from this form of endoscopy. It can be used to look for abnormalities such as anatomic irregularities (e.g., ectopic ureters), urinary stones, masses, or polyps. In some instances, stones or polyps can be removed during endoscopy (see interventional endoscopy).